Accueil > Civilisation > U.S.A. > Segregation

Exercise


Jim Crow laws Disfranchisement Plessy v. Ferguson Separate but equal
State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans. Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The revocation of the right of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people explicitly through law, or implicitly by intimidation or by imposing unreasonable demands (poll taxes, residency requirements, rule variations, literacy and understanding tests that were hard for the poor to fulfill). It is also called disenfranchisement. A 1896 landmark Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, confirming the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal." It was in favor of Judge Ferguson who ruled that Homer Plessy, a man of African-American origin, had no right to sit in the "whites-only" passenger car of a Louisiana train. A legal doctrine in United States constitutional law that justified systems of segregation. Under this doctrine, services, facilities and public accommodations were allowed to be separated by race, on the condition that the quality of each group's public facilities was to remain equal.
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Ku Klux Klan White supremacy Lynching Great Migration
Far-right organization in the United States, which has advocated white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration. It first flourished in the South in the late 1860s. Members adopted white costumes: robes, masks, and conical hats, to be terrifying, and to hide their identities. Then it flourished nationwide in the 1920sand after World War. It is often abbreviated KKK and informally known as the Klan. Belief that white people are superior to people of other racial backgrounds. White supremacy was dominant in the United States before the American Civil War and for decades after Reconstruction. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage through anti-miscegenation laws until 1967, when these laws were declared unconstitutional. Took place most frequently in the South from 1890 to the 1920s. It is associated with re-imposition of White supremacy in the South after the Civil War. Black Americans, and Whites active in the pursuit of equal rights, were frequently lynched when Southern states changed their constitutions to disfranchise most blacks. The movement of 6 million African Americans out of the Southern United States, especially Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, to the Northeast, Midwest, and West from 1910 to 1970. By the end of this movement, only 53 percent of African Americans remained in the South (as against 90 percent in 1910), while 40 percent lived in the North and 7 percent in the West.
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Civil Rights Movement
Montgomery Bus Boycott Little Rock The March on Washington
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The arrest in 1955 of Rosa Parks, a woman who refused to leave her seat to a white passenger in a segregated bus, was the cause of the boycott of these segregated buses in the capital of Alabama. The young Baptist minister who became president of the movement was Martin Luther King, Jr. After more than a year, a federal court ordered the buses to be desegregated and the boycott ended. Nine African-American students who tried to attend Little Rock Central High School in 1957 because of their excellent grades were denied this right. On the first day of school, only one of the nine students showed up and was harassed by white protesters outside the school. Afterward, the nine students had to be escorted by military personnel in jeeps. A major rally for human rights that took place in the federal capital in 1963, a hundred years after the Emancipation Proclamation. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial in front of 200,000. A major piece of legislation signed by President Johnson. It outlawed major forms of discrimination based on "race, color, religion, sex or national origin". It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations"). 
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