Anglais > Civilisation > U.S.A. > Slavery


Triangular Trade Middle Passage auction plantation
The transatlantic trade that carried in the 17th and 18th centuries manufactured merchandises from Europe to West Africa, then slaves from Africa to America and cash crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton …) from America to Europe. The stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade. A public sale upon which goods are sold for the highest price offered. In slave auctions, people were sold as slaves to other people; families were split up and sold to different owners. A large artificially established farm or estate, where crops are grown for sale, often in distant markets rather than for local on-site consumption. Crops grown on plantations include cotton, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane...
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Field slaves House slaves Whipping Shackles
Slaves who did the hard manual labor in the fields of plantations. They commonly picked cotton, sugar, rice and tobacco. The conditions for field slaves were a lot worse than house slaves. Slaves who worked and often lived in the house of the slave-owner. House slaves had various duties such as cooking, cleaning, serving meals and caring for children. Corporal punishment inflicted with the repeated blows of a whip or strap or rope. Synonyms: flogging, lashing… A kind of physical restraint used on the feet or ankles to allow walking but prevent running and kicking. Synonym: fetters.
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Runaway slaves Fugitive slave laws Underground Railroad Civil War
Slaves who escaped from their master to travel to a place where slavery was banned or illegal. Many went to northern territories including Pennsylvania and Massachusetts and, after the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, had to leave the country, traveling to Canada or Mexico. Laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory. A network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century black slaves in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists. (1861–1865): In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ("the Confederacy"); the other 25 states supported the federal government ("the Union"). After four years of warfare, mostly within the Southern states, the Confederacy surrendered and slavery was outlawed everywhere in the nation.
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