Anglais > Grammaire > VerbesOpérationsaffirmation - Négation - interrogation - interronégation - emphatique

Sommaire : forme complète - forme contractée - "ne plus" - autres mots négatifs - autres emplois - passif -

La négation se forme en ajoutant le mot not /nɒt/ à l'auxiliaire, lequel varie selon le temps ou le modal employé. Ainsi apparaît do au Simple present et did au Simple past :

Forme négative - voix active - forme complète - Verbe work = travailler : I do not work =  je ne travaille pas

WORK Simple Perfect
PRESENT Simple present Present Be + Ving Present perfect  Present perfect Be + Ving
I do not work I am not working I have not worked I have not been working
you do not work you are not working you have not worked you have not been working
he does not work he is not working he has not worked he has not been working
we do not work we are not working we have not worked we have not been working
you do not work you are not working you have not worked you have not been working
they do not work they are not working they have not worked they have not been working
   Exercice  Exercice  Exercice  Exercice
PAST
Simple past Past Be + Ving Past perfect  Past perfect Be + Ving
I did not work I was not working I had not worked I had not been working
you did not work you were not working you had not worked you had not been working
he did not work he was not working he had not worked he had not been working
we did not work we were not working we had not worked we had not been working
you did not work you were not working you had not worked you had not been working
they did not work they were not working they had not worked they had not been working
Exercice Exercice Exercice Exercice

not s'ajoute aussi aux auxiliaires modaux :

Modals  Formes du présent will not may not cannot shall not must not
 Formes du passé would not might not could not should not  
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Forme contractée : Not peut se contracter en n't, surtout à l'oral. Avec les auxiliaires, cela donne les formes suivantes :

Present Past
3° p singulier pluriel singulier pluriel
BE isn't /ˈɪzənt/ aren't /ɑːnt/ wasn't /ˈwɒzənt/ weren't /w3ːnt/
HAVE hasn't /ˈhæzənt/ haven't /ˈhævənt/ hadn't /ˈhædənt/
DO doesn't /ˈdʌzənt/ don't /dəʊnt/ didn't /ˈdɪdənt/

Forme négative - voix active - forme contractée - Verbe work = travailler : I don't work =  je ne travaille pas

WORK Simple Perfect
PRESENT Simple present Present Be + Ving Present perfect  Present perfect Be + Ving
I don't work I'm not working I haven't worked I haven't been working
you don't work you aren't working you haven't worked you haven't been working
he doesn't work he isn't working he hasn't worked he hasn't been working
we don't work we aren't working we haven't worked we haven't been working
you don't work you aren't working you haven't worked you haven't been working
they don't work they aren't working they haven't worked they haven't been working
Exercice Exercice Exercice Exercice
         
PAST
Simple past Past Be + Ving Past perfect  Past perfect Be + Ving
I didn't work I wasn't working I hadn't worked I hadn't been working
you didn't work you weren't working you hadn't worked you hadn't been working
he didn't work he wasn't working he hadn't worked he hadn't been working
we didn't work we weren't working we hadn't worked we hadn't been working
you didn't work you weren't working you hadn't worked you hadn't been working
they didn't work they weren't working they hadn't worked they hadn't been working
Exercice Exercice Exercice Exercice

Il en est de même pour les
auxiliaires modaux :
Modals  Formes du présent won't /wəʊnt/ mayn't  (très rare) can'/kɑːnt/ shan't /ʃɑːnt/ mustn't /ˈmʌsnt/
 Formes du passé wouldn't /ˈwʊdnt/ mightn't /ˈmaɪtnt/ couldn't /ˈkʊdnt/ shouldn't  /ˈʃʊdnt/  
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Traduction de "ne ... plus" :
Sens quantitatif : not ... any more / no more + matière quantifiable
We don't need any more money. = Nous n'avons plus besoin d'argent. (We don't need any more = nous n'en avons plus besoin.)
There's no more water. = Il n'y a plus d'eau.  (There's no more. = Il n'y en a plus.)
Attention à ne pas utiliser not/n't avec no, la double négation étant considérée comme incorrecte en anglais, même si on la trouve dans un parler familier.
Voir l'utilisation de some / any / no .

Sens temporel : not any longer / no longer
We don't need you any longer. / We no longer need you. = Nous n'avons plus besoin de toi.
 On peut aussi utiliser not ... any more en anglais familier : We don't need you any more(mais pas no more pour un sens temporel).

Dans ces deux sens, la forme avec any tend à être plus familière et la forme avec no plus formelle.

Exercice haut de page

Autres emplois : outre not, d'autres mots ont une valeur négative :

Certains sont dérivés de formes affirmatives :
formes affirmatives formes négatives
ever [ˈɛvəʳ] never [ˈnɛvəʳ] ever = jamais > never = ne ... jamais
either [ˈaɪðəʳ] neither [ˈnaɪðəʳ] prononciation plus britannique either ... or ... = soit ... soit ...
(voir aussi 'both')
neither ... nor ... = ni ... ni ...
(pour "moi non plus", voici ci-dessous)
[ˈiːðəʳ] [ˈniːðəʳ] prononciation plus américaine
or [əʳ] nor [nəʳ] prononciation non accentuée
[ˈɔːʳ] [ˈnɔːʳ] prononciation accentuée

Les adverbes : hardly / scarcely / barely = à peine : He hardly works. = Il travaille à peine. (A bien différencier de : He works hard. = Il travaille dur.)

rarely / seldom = rarement : I have rarely seen him work. = Je l'ai rarement vu travailler.

few, little = peu de

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La négation est particulièrement utilisée pour
les question-tags : He is rich, isn't he? = Il est riche, n'est-ce pas ?
les réponses courtes :  'Are you ready?' 'I'm not.' = "Es-tu prêt ?" "Non."
les réponses interrogatives : 'Jane isn't rich.' 'Isn't she?' = "Jane n'est pas riche." "Ah bon ?"
la traduction de "moi aussi" / "moi non plus" - "moi si" / "moi non" :  

réponse à une phrase affirmative réponse à une phrase négative
confirmation - J'aime ce film. - Moi aussi. - Je n'aime pas ce film - Moi non plus.
'I like this film' 'So do I.' 'I don't like this film.' 'Neither do I.'
contradiction - J'aime ce film. - Moi non. - Je n'aime pas ce film - Moi si.
'I like this film' 'I don't.' 'I don't like this film.' 'I do.'
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Forme négative - voix passive - Verbe call = appeler : I am not called =  je ne suis pas appelé haut de page
Simple Present Present Perfect Present Be + ing
I am not called I have not been called I am not being called
he is not called he has not been called he is not being called
we are not called we have not been called we are not being called
you are not called you have not been called you are not being called
they are not called they have not been called they are not being called
Simple Past Past Perfect Past Be + ing
I was not called I had not been called I was not being called
he was not called he had not been called he was not being called
we were not called we had not been called we were not being called
you were not called you had not been called you were not being called
they were not called they had not been called they were not being called